Free Article about Handwriting Analysis


New Paper 2017: “Demeaning Others

The following article was written by Július Zemaník, one of the most outstanding students and graduates of the KAROHS International School of Handwriting Analysis®.

It is a description of a graphology trait discovered by Magdalena Ivanovic, a renowned German graphologist who seems to have been way ahead of her time in her graphological research and discoveries. Unfortunately, she received little recognition during her lifetime. Ivanovic herself lamented that her ideas were poorly received and her (books) were never mentioned in any of the graphological publications of her time. She expressed the wish that her work would at least inspire future graphologists to undertake research in areas she suggested.

It seems that this time has come. Contemporary graphologists are finally recognizing the innovative work Ivanovic did and the cutting-edge theories she developed. Dr. Erika Karohs, in her book, Personality Traits At a Glance discusses some of the traits that were discovered by Ivanovic.

Július Zemaník built upon the work of Dr. Karohs and added much dedicated research of his own. Július Zemaník is our youngest graduate who completed our courses with highest honors. Aside from his studies, he independently researched and studied many great graphologists. Apart from Dr. Karohs, he is probably the foremost expert on Magdalena Ivanovic.

We all congratulate him on the outstanding explanation of this hitherto little know trait. Look for further contributions by this very gifted, dedicated young scholar – Július Zemaník.

Click here to read the paper “Demeaning Others.”
Click here for Dr. Karohs book “Personality Traits At A Glance.


Free Article From “Sunday Lessons III”

We are Proud to Announce the Return of the Sunday Lessons Series.

Here you can read Free articles “SUNDAY LESSONS III.” Off and on, for many years,  Dr. Karohs had published the series, “Sunday Lessons” on alternate weekends on the Internet. Since we have received many requests for resurrecting them, we are starting a completely new, “Sunday Lessons III”. The topics will be randomly selected from interesting graphology subjects and are intended to supplement a regular study course.

If you interested in Sunday Lessons Completed Pack, you can order here

Previous “Sunday Lessons” are only available in PDF. The books also include 5 bonus lessons: Accident Proneness, Criminal Tendencies as Seen in Handwriting, Leadership Ability, Right versus Left Tendency in Handwriting, and Speed in Handwriting. For information on the previous series of “Sunday Lessons”, click here then scroll to the bottom of the page.

These “Sunday Lessons” were originally published to augment a comprehensive course of handwriting analysis study and they should not replace a regular study course in handwriting analysis.



The chapters are:

back to Free ARTICLE  1. Rolled Strokes  2. Air Strokes & Alignments  3. Thinking Patterns (1)   4. Thinking Patterns Continued (2)    5. Thinking Patterns Continued (3)    6. Accident Proneness    7. Answers to Quiz from Lesson from No.6    8. More Answers from Lesson from No. 6  9. More Air stroke Discussion   10. Directional Pressure   11. Double Curves   12. Non-Manager Discussions   13. The Letter “M”   14. Soldered (sautered) writing 15. 2 Most Frequent Questions   16. Emphasis


  • Sunday Lesson #1: Rolled Strokes

Rolled strokes

According to Crépieux-Jamin, rolled strokes were among the earliest signs recognized by people fascinated with handwriting analysis. Moreau de la Sarthe, the French publisher of Lavater’s works, considered them evidence of presumptuousness and conceit.

Michon on the other hand, saw them as “harmless frills in the writing if pubescent girls indulging in innocent coquetry.” He maintained that these “youthful exuberances disappear as soon as they become happy mothers and wives. Indications of simplicity then take the place of this guileless adornments of youth which few people at this age can escape.”

Crépieux-Jamin objected fervently to Michon’s gentle interpretation. He maintains that he continued to observe the handwritings of certain people from youth into adulthood. Only in rare cases, he says, was there a change from embellished to simplified writing. “In comparing old notebooks of presumptuous people,” he declares, “we found that they had retained this trait from early youth.”

It appears that the majority of graphologists agree with Crépieux-Jamin. Gerstner describes rolled initial and final strokes as evidence of conceit and vanity. He adds that these individuals “tend to be premeditated and calculating in thinking and actions.”

Rolled strokes in the upper zone, Rolled strokes in the middle zone, to be continued…


Read For Complete Article (1) Here


  • Sunday Lesson #2: Airstrokes& Alignments


Magdalena Ivanovic, one of the most inspirational (and unappreciated) German graphologists, left a wealth of unexplored graphological research information.

Among other indicators, she discovered the airstroke or immaterial stroke. “These frictionless immaterial lines,” she postulates,” represent the intellectual.” She emphasizes that “this is not disconnected writing, but only a writing of which parts are invisible. It is used when the writer’s fast mind believes that intellect can do a better job than physical activity.”( Frank Victor: A Personality Projection.)

Airstrokes are connecting lines from one zone to another in which the writing instrument has been slightly lifted off the paper. Although the ductus (writing line) is invisible, the actual writing movement has continued. An important characteristic is that the direction of the interrupted stroke remains constant. Furthermore, both stroke remainders must be visible and point toward each other. In fast writing, there may be an extremely fine hairline. This is still an airstroke.

Read For Complete (2) Article Here


Letters, words and lines are symbolic for various time spans in the writer’s life. Their alignment (horizontal direction) reveals the writer’s inner feelings and outward behavior. It shows how he approaches a project and how he carries it through. It illustrates planning ability and points to optimism or negativism, respectively. Most importantly, it signals the writer’s degree of flexibility and adaptability.

As symbols of time, letters manifest very short and words somewhat longer periods. Lines typify still longer spans of time. The lines of a whole page or of several pages are synonymous with years.

Alignment exposes the writer’s attitude during each particular block of time. For instance, if letter alignment is very irregular, it attests to frustration and a very quickly changing attitude.

Irregular word alignment is less serious because the writer’s mood alters over a somewhat longer period of time. Evaluation of alignment is important because it is one of the handwriting characteristics that is extremely difficult to change at will.

There are eight main categories of alignment: Straight            , Variable, Upslanted, Downslanted, Convex, Concave, Step-up, Step-down. To be continued…


Read For Complete (2) Article Here




  • Sunday Lesson #3: Thinking Patterns

In graphology, thinking has to do with HOW the person thinks, now what he thinks about or how much quality there is to his thinking.“HOW” breaks down into four categories.

(1) Cumulative or methodical thinker – the person who is inclined to consciously process “new” ideas or challenges through a thought process.

(2) Comprehensive thinker – the person who is prone to allow his automatic reactions – based on memories of past experiences – to determine his thoughts in the moments.

(3) Analytical thinker – the person who feels that it is necessary to analyze everything about a given situation (whether he is familiar with it or not) before he is comfortable enough to take action.

(4) Investigative thinker – the person with an inquisitive mind and the desire to explore for himself whatever interests him. He will not be satisfied with second-hand information.

Cumulative thinking

Rounded tops on letters m and n indicate cumulative thinking. They are intensified by flat topped “r’s.”

The cumulative thinking pattern

Cumulative thinkers consciously process new information in a step-by-step manner to understand it completely. They are concerned with the whole process and each step involved. When they are thinking things through they need time, which means they have a slower pace of learning – until they grasp all the facts. They are easily under a great deal of pressure to “hurry up” in learning situations. When such pressure is put on them, their minds tend to go “blank.” And they are usually very irritated when they have to work with faster thinkers.

Application to vocation

Research and educational fields are naturals for cumulative thinkers. Any occupation in which planning and theory are involved, will give them satisfaction, as long as the schedule includes enough time for preparation and thought. In other words, cumulative thinkers function best where they can work at their own rhythm.


Comprehensive Thinking

The comprehensive thinker grasps points quickly. He applies them to what he already knows and moves quickly into action. He “thinks on his feet.” Wherever things must happen quickly, he functions to advantage. He always appears to have part of his mind on the next step of the project and is rushing forward to that.

But he is not concerned with the process of thought. End results are what he is after. He is quick to deal with effects, slower to understand or search for the cause.


Read for the complete (3) Article Here
  • Sunday Lesson #4: Thinking Patterns Continued

As most of you know, students are sending all kinds of questions to me on a daily basis. Every so often, I’ll include one of general interest with the Sunday lessons.

Student Question: I would really like to understand the difference between the thinking patterns. I am a methodical (cumulative) thinker and I’ve got that one down. What is confusing to me are the comprehensive, analytical and investigative thinkers.

Analytical thinking

Handwriting indicator: Angles at the baseline of middle zone letters (m, n) indicate analytical thinking. (Angles at the bottom of oval letters have an entirely different meaning).

The analytical thinking pattern

The analytical thinker is foremost interested in analyzing cause and effect. He wants to know the “why” and “how” behind things. He is always figuring out the reason. He feels he must analyze everything about a given situation, even if he is familiar with it. He wants to understand reasons and every step of the process by which conclusions are reached. He wants to gain a clear understanding based upon provable facts before he is comfortable enough to take action on anything.

Because he takes every “whole” to pieces to understand “the parts,” it takes him longer to process any situation. Analysis takes time and he takes longer to arrive at his conclusions. If the analytical writer is also an investigative or cumulative thinker, he will be even slower in processing information.

Analysis is an excellent trait, but if applied to every little thing, others will lose patience – and rightly so – with the writer. The analytical writer’s “figure, figure” process can be a real trial for those who deal with him. It slows down responses and makes others feel blocked. Sometimes the writer’s analytical deliberateness takes so long that others mistake him for dense, slow, or stupid.

The analytical writer typically wants to go on learning new things all his life. He seeks knowledge by going directly to the source, rather than relying on others to ascertain the facts for him. He puts on the brakes when confronted with new challenges, information or decisions. He feels that he must scrutinize everything until all the components mesh.

The writer counts on others to be equally thorough and analytical. He wants to know the reasons behind their statements, and he expects them to go back over points until he is sure he understands. He does not want to be told that a product will pay for itself. He wants to know exactly why and how it will be useful to him and how it will be saving him money. The analytical child wants to know why it is punished.

Examples of behavior patterns of analytical people, Application to vocation, to leadership, Compatibility between analytical and comprehensive thinkers, Analytical thinking in sales, Sales Examples, Analytical customer with comprehensive customer, Analytical customer with comprehensive computer salesman, ….. (continued)

Read for the complete Article (4) Here
  • Sunday Lesson #5: Thinking Patterns Continued

Investigative thinking

Handwriting indicator: Angles at the upper part of middle zone structures show investigative thinking. The sharper the angles, the more pronounced is the trait.

The search for knowledge may be deep probing or it may be just prompted by curiosity, which results in just skimming the surface of the subject. The higher the investigative wedges protrude above the baseline, the deeper the mind probes. The narrower the wedge, the more keenly the writer cuts into and explores knowledge. If the wedges are tall, he likes to explore information in new territories. If the wedges are shallow, they merely indicate curiosity.

The investigative thinking pattern

The writer has an inquiring mind and is not an easy person to convince. He wants to investigate all aspects of a situation before becoming involved. His intention is to go directly to the source and he insists on gaining firsthand knowledge through his own efforts.

The writer prefers to learn his lessons through his own investigation rather than from other people or books. It is his nature that he wants to experience through his own exploration.
The writer is constantly inquiring and has the intellect to explore and absorb facts. He believes in looking beyond the obvious and enjoys research and investigation. Once an idea becomes fixed in his mind, he usually sets about gathering large amounts of information to augment it. He does not like to undertake a venture until he has carefully examined the ground and accumulated the necessary knowledge beforehand.

The writer’s curiosity goes beyond the immediate task. If he is excited by any new subject he wants to go on learning more about it. He is constantly questioning and seeking. Foremost, he wants to become a well-informed person and he is keenly interested in expanding his knowledge. Knowledge through education may be one of his chief goals. He has a hunger to learn and may remain a “student” throughout his life. He almost certainly he has a great love and respect for education.
He probably would like to have at least one academic degree. He is always trying to broaden and develop his mind and may endeavor to give others the benefit of his knowledge.
The writer probably derives most of his relaxation and pleasure from mental pursuits that are usually not far removed from his working habits.

Application to vocation, with organizational skills, How to talk to investigative thinkers, Investigative thinking versus curiosity, Advantages and Disadvantages of investigative thinkingHow to counsel the analytical thinker, … (continued)

Read for the complete Article (5) Here


  • Sunday Lesson #6: Accident Proneness

From 1951 to 1955, Dr. Heinrich Pfanne, renowned German graphologist, lectured in various parts of the former East Germany. I was very fortunate to be able to hear him during his lectures in Rudolstadt. Thuringia.

In 1955, in response to many requests, Pfanne published those lectures in a small volume Wesen und Wert der Graphologie (Essence and Merit of Graphology). In one of the chapters he touches upon the subject of accident proneness as seen in handwriting.

According to Pfanne, insurance companies have long ago discovered that one particular group of people seems to suffer a large percentage of all accidents, whereas other individuals remain relatively accident free. Unfortunately, industry often keeps such persons in hazardous work situations and will relocate them only after a series of additional mishaps.

Merten states that “some people have a high susceptibility to accidents. They are restless and distracted, inclined to trust luck. They take their chances to prove that they can handle any emergency.” He adds that these individuals tend to develop an “accident habit” and “often show a history of minor collisions before a major injury is incurred.”

Many losses, both financial and health wise, could be prevented if accident proneness were recognized before hiring vulnerable people for dangerous jobs.

A few months ago, one of my international client companies asked me to prepare special “Profiles” for around 100 of their blue color workers covering 6 traits that are of special significance to them. One of those traits was accident proneness. The Profiles were done from the handwriting of workers who are already employed. If there is a high percentage of agreement between the Profiles and the company’s actual experience with these employees, these Profiles will be done for several thoursand workers in their factories.

The indicators I used for accident proneness were:

  1. nervousness
  2. poor concentration

According to Merten, these writers are “nervous and agitated without reason. They are restless and it irritates them to be inactive. Often, their movements are random, without purpose and direction. They may be finger-drumming and foot-tapping. They pace, just for the sake of moving. Their mind is not easily directed toward one activity for a longer period of time.”

Handwriting indicators for nervousness:


Poor concentration Handwriting indicators for poor concentration: …. (to be continued)

Read for the complete Article (6) Here
  • Sunday Lesson #7: Answers to Quiz from Lesson #6

By Dr. Erika M. Karohs

Judging by the answers I have received in response to the Quiz in Sunday lesson 6, this is  a challenging and interesting assignment. Thanks to those who have participated. I have carefully reviewed each answer and was astounded by the thoroughness of some of them.

The main purpose of this Quiz is to emphasize one of the most important principles in handwriting analysis:

Describe what you see in the handwriting.

Too often, students and analysts know the traits by heart, but when it comes to writing the analysis, they seem stuck and don’t know what to say. The solution to the problem is: Write what you see!.

Being a graphologist is a position of trust. People trust you with their handwritings and expect that you will apply your ethical principles fully to your work. This means – don’t leave out things, and don’t add or manyfacture things that aren’t really in the writing. Describe only what you see.

During my own graphology studies in Germany, our professor has us spent part of nearly every class describing a person according to one handwriting indicators. For instance, how a person would presumable  behave with middle zone height extremely small, or copybook, or very large. Then another exercise would be done with middle zone width. Next, we would combine two indicators – small letter height plus broad letter width, or narrow letter width plus large word spacing, etc.

You may want to try this for yourself. It takes much discipline, but it is an invaluable exercise. Suddenly, you will no longer generalize, but describe the person exactly from what you see in the handwriting. What I have learned during those exercises has stayed with me through the rest of my life and it has improved my analysis writing many fold.

I realize that this Quiz was difficult because the letters contain traits with which you may not be familiar. Still, it is valuable because you are learning much new information – and you never know when you may encounter these traits in a client’s handwriting yourself!

The interpretations for the letters #3 and #4 will be published with Sunday Lesson #8. At that time, you will also learn who the Winner is. I am really enjoying your contributions.

Note: It is very important that you use a magnifying glass to clearly see all the components of these letters.

These are the four letters to be analyzed: Letter # 1 and # 2

Interpretation and …. To be continued

Read for the complete Article (7) Here


  • Sunday Lesson #8: More Answers from Lesson #6

By Dr. Erika M. Karohs

Today, you will look at letters 3 and 4 of the quiz from Lesson 6. First, there will be my interpretations, followed by a step-by-step examination of the winning answer.


Letter # 3


D5 Fear of criticism and restrictions (full name of trait)

Most trait schools consider a looped d– or t-stem as sign of sensitiveness to criticism. However, the diagonal stroke is an even more significant indicator because it is an unconscious addition to letters and words and usually remains inconspicuous in the overall writing picture. The more obscure the stroke, the more intense is the meaning of the trait.

The writer is easily offended by real or imagined criticism. He is vulnerable to even unintended slights about his performance, habits, mannerisms, or beliefs. Any hint of censure makes him defensive, although he will not readily admit this, even to himself. This kind of sensitiveness is not something the writer knows about himself, it functions unconsciously.

The writer is afraid of restrictions. His fear of restrictions is so great that he hates to commit himself to any kind of event, social or otherwise, where he has to appear at a certain time. He would rather leave things “loose.” He hates to make any kind of promise that commits him definitely. This would include such social arrangements, dates, etc. He would rather “drop in” and thus leave himself a chance to avoid the engagement, if he does not feel up to it. A long-term contract, such as an engagement or getting married, would be a most difficult situation. He would feel committed without an opportunity to escape.

Important! The writer’s sensitivity to restrictions may be so great that it may extend to tight collars or tight clothing, an office without windows, a small room, elevators, or crowded places. This trait often contributes to claustrophobia.


…(to be continued)


Read for the complete Article (8) Here


  • Sunday Lesson #9: More Airstroke Discussion

By Dr. Erika M. Karohs

Magdalena Ivanovic, a German graphologist, first discovered airstrokes. Another term she used for them was “immaterial strokes”.

Airstrokes are connecting lines from one zone to another in which the writing instrument has been slightly lifted off the paper. Although the ductus (writing line) is invisible, the actual writing movement has continued. An important characteristic is that the direction of the interrupted stroke remains constant. Furthermore, both stroke remainders must be visible and point toward each other.  In fast writing, there may be an extremely fine hairline. This is still an airstroke.

Occasional airstrokes facilitate speed of writing and are one of the indicators of above average intelligence. They manifest mental perspicuity, associative skills, and logical thinking ability.

Airstroke writers are quick-witted and let their intellect do the job for them, rather than toiling physically. They are the kind of people who dislike friction in their work and interpersonal relationships. They are, as a rule, intellectually oriented and want to pursue their mental work without impediments and abrasions.

In writing, upward movements cause a certain amount of drag as the writing instrument pushes slightly into the paper. Airstroke writers eliminate it by lifting the pen off the paper.

Airstrokes in moderate degree show that the writer is flexible in his responses and adapts easily to people and circumstances (again to avoid friction).

Airstrokes in strong degree reveal that the writer takes the easy way out; he is too easily swayed. He may agree simply to avoid arguments and as a result, he may appear unpredictable.

Important! Where the beginning and the ending of the broken stroke are present but do not point toward each other this is not an airstroke. It indicates a disturbance in coordination and as such may be a sign of diminished intelligence.

Response to the Letter Sent from the Writer of the “Four g’s” (continued from Sunday Lesson 8)

Dear Friend:

Your writing tells me that you are definitely not an average person but someone special – and you want others to be aware of that fact. You strive to have, or do, or be something that sets you apart from others. And this difference is quite important to you. Others may not approve of you at times because of your eccentric behavior. But you are quite proud of it and would not give it up without a struggle.
You have quite a high opinion of yourself, dear friend, but your pride is usually justified. Still, a small core of doubt remains deep in your heart. At times, insecurity makes you jealous of others whom you deem more popular, or more productive, or more gifted than you, yourself, are. Consciously or unconsciously, you begrudge them the advantages you desire for yourself and when misfortune befalls them, you can’t help feeling a certain degree of satisfaction.

…. To be continued

Read for the complete Article (9) Here
  • Sunday Lesson #10: Directional Pressure

By Dr. Erika M. Karohs

As promised in Sunday Lesson #9, today you are learning about “Directional Pressure.” It is a concept that is unfamiliar to many analysts, yet it provides important insight into the personality of the writer. Especially the so-called “Felons’ Claw” occurs frequently and needs careful interpretation.


Directional Pressure

Directional pressure is not the type of pressure normally discussed in graphology. “It is an invisible pressure coming out of one of the four directions of the writing field, a pressure always of a negative nature and always having the effect of changing a straight downstroke into a curved one.”
Directional pressure does not cause a softly curved form. It results in a caved- in letter due to invisible pressure from either left, right, above or below.

The concept of the bent stroke is not new in graphology. It was used repeatedly in earlier literature. Roda Wiesermentions it in her investigation of the ductus, i. e., quality of the writing stroke. Wittlichand Pokornyclaim that bent strokes are always related to fear and mention them in the sense of the writers having experienced unusually severe traumatic events. They speak of Angeschlagensein (being wounded, being injured, and subsequently vulnerable).


Felix Klein’s theory of directional pressure

The late Felix Klein made the original observations leading to his theory during his incarceration in the concentration camps of Dachau and Buchenwald, Germany. He found that rigid people had the least chance of survival. One has to be resilient to endure such cruel circumstances. Klein also noted that the more flexible inmates showed a peculiar indication in their script, namely a curvature in the downstrokes toward the left.

Klein remembered that according to Pulver’steachings the right side connotes the future. He reasoned that having to deal with an overwhelming fear of tomorrow would manifest itself in writing and concluded that it had the effect of curving straight downstrokes toward the left.
Klein called this phenomenon directional pressure and explained that only flexible people showed directional pressure in their script.


The meaning of directional pressure

Directional pressure always pertains to the area or zone in which it occurs. It exposes strong fear within the writers and, at the same time, a special kind of resilience enabling them to cope with otherwise unbearable circumstances.

With directional pressure from the right, the writers are suffering trauma related to the future; they are experiencing fear of the father, or father figures, or fellow men in general. And while they are coping in some way or another, they basically have little hope that circumstances will change soon.
The writers may resort to the defenses of procrastination or withdrawal to reduce emotional strain. They may avoid commitments by dodging direct promises. They may withdraw from obligations, if possible, or try to postpone, hoping for a chance to get out of them. They act somewhat in the sense of what we have come to think of as survivors. They may try to outsmart others or profit from their gullibility. This is not done with deceitful intent but rather a maneuver to help them survive in the face of overwhelming threat. Whatever they do, living with unresolved fears takes a great toll both physically emotionally and mentally.

With directional pressure from the left, the writers have suffered trauma in the past that is still exerting a controlling influence in their lives. Unresolved fears from the past are affecting their behavior.
Directional pressure remains evident in people’s writing long after the traumatic events have passed and the emotional memory of the trauma stays with them indefinitely. It becomes reactivated by far less painful incidents. The person remains forever vulnerable and this is what Wittlich and Pokorny refer to when they speak of Angeschlagensein.

Directional pressure from the right can occur in any of the three zones and in the right margin. It indicates  fear or anxiety because of the future; possible difficulties with or pressure from the father; possible fear of fellow men.

Directional pressure in another areas … to be continued




Read for the complete Article (10) Here


  • Sunday Lesson #11: Double Curves

By Dr. Erika M. Karohs

We have to thank Margarete Ivanovicfor the discovery and interpretation of double curves. She had an unequaled perception of uncommon graphic indicators (she also discovered the “air stroke” or “immaterial stroke”).Double curves can provide much insight about a personality. Unfortunately, these significant indicators are widely neglected because (a) not much is written about them in the more popular graphological works and (b) recognizing them takes a trained eye and thorough knowledge of the graphological meaning of the various configurations. Once graphologists have familiarized themselves with these signs, however, they will realize how much additional information they can glean from them for a much more thorough analysis.Double curves are delicately curved lines consisting of either

  • one convex and once concave portion
  • one concave and one convex portion
  • two concave portions or
  • two convex portions

The direction can be vertical, horizontal, leftward, or rightward.

Important! The double curve has to be an individual addition to a letter. It cannot be part of a copybook letter formation; for instance, the letters S or L are not comprised of double curves.


Double curves of creativity and music

The musical and the creative curves consist of one smaller convex and a larger concave curve.

The musical and creative curves are similar, except that in the creative curve pressure is on the larger curve, in the musical curve, pressure is on the smaller curve.


creative           musical

Double curve of creativity

The writer has the ability to create without precedent. His mind functions inventively, reaching conclusions that are not the norm. He has an original approach to things and puts his personal stamp on whatever he does. He adds creative thinking to his work. His creativity may be expressed in small ways or on a larger scale. His need for self-expression may find an outlet in the creative field, and he is probably gifted in poetry.


Double curve of music

Musical aptitude is indicated by this formation. If they writer does not have musical talent him/herself, he will show appreciation for the musical field.

Double curve of insincerity

According to Magdalene Ivanovic, the double curve of insincerity consists of two unrelated curves.

These formations are additions to the letter formations. They are not part of the actual letters themselves. While ideally these signs should be supported by additional evidence in the writing they are strong evidence of insincerity  by themselves.

The writer is an individual who intentionally deceives and misleads people with whom he deals. He deliberately tries to obscure his real intent from others. He hides and misrepresents and he may lie and evade the truth. There exists a real risk in dealing with him. His leading motivation is for personal advantages at others’ expense.


Double curve of pretense, and others… to be continued


Read for the complete Article (11) Here


  • Sunday Lesson #12: Non-Manager Discussions

By Dr. Erika M. Karohs


“The word manager,” says Fervers (German graphologist), “holds a kind of magic. It symbolizes power, wealth, status and influence. Not surprisingly, many people seem to believe that, ideally, they should become managers, regardless of their qualifications – or lack of it.”
According to Fervers graphologists receive many requests to evaluate applicants for management qualifications and learned dissertations dealing with the identification of management potential in handwriting abound. What most graphologists seem to overlook, however, is the fact that they could learn just as much or more from the handwritings of so-called non managers.
Fervers hastens to add that the classification no  manager does not constitute a negative value judgment because graphology neither glorifies individual nor does it condemn. The true function, according to Fervers, is to assess personality as seen in the handwriting. He adds somewhat sheepishly that managers may well be the gods of industry, but this does not necessarily mean that they are always great human beings.

The following handwriting indicators are typical for non managers. The more of these traits are in evidence, the less qualified is the applicant for a management position.

1. Slow writing

An individual who slowly executes each letter formation will find it difficult to keep up with the hectic pace of the business world. He needs time to gather data and weigh information. He may become irritated when forced to deal with faster individual and his mind tends to go blank under pressure. When he does something on impulse, it is usually an emotional response. Such an emotional reaction prohibits real thinking in the moment and he usually regrets his impulsive behavior later.

2. Extreme disconnectedness

In interpersonal relationships, such individuals are contact-shy. They shun involvement on the emotional level. They reject close relationships and show little interest in others emotional responses and needs.

  1. Ostentatious elaborations

Overdone elaborations are used by individuals who tend to exaggerate. Their exaggerations are artificial and unnatural and reality escape them when this is happening. They are not aware, much of the time, how far they are going. Frequently, they are trying to bluff; however, they will be unable to carry through and deliver what they lead others to believe.


  1. Left tending indicators

Left tendency indicates that the writer is introverted and withdrawn. He tends to retreat into the past for feelings of security. He shuns risk taking activities and needs to feel secure before going ahead. He needs much encouragement while undertaking anything that is not familiar. Apprehension often causes him to limit himself unnecessarily.


  1. Step-down alignment

This is evidence that the writer is involved in constant struggle against feelings of melancholy. He overcomes negative moods temporarily, only to be defeated again. In every case, the efforts surpasses the writer’s energy and he experiences inner conflicts and much frustration.

  1. Higher final hump in letters m and/or n

This indicator shows that the writer feels tense and ill at ease in the presence of others and particularly in new or unfamiliar situations.


  1. Lower loops bending leftwards

These individuals are fearful and dependent. They need encouragement and help to perform adequately. In order to feel more adequate, they withdraw from people they consider superior to them. They prefer to associate with people who seem less capable than or less important they, themselves, appear to be.


  1. Extremely broad spaces between words and baselines

This formation exposes the writer who has isolated himself emotionally and interpersonally. Wagner speaks of the “fear of being touched and the tendency to keep people at arm’s length.”Such individuals dislike people who stand to close when talking and who try to touch and hold. They are uncomfortable in the presence of large crowds and uneasy in every-day social relationships. They have difficulty with people who make demand or cling to them. They life is isolated with few people allowed to share their personal experiences. “In a sense,” muses Wagner, “they are onlookers, observers, rather than participants in active living.”


To be continued …


Read for the complete Article (12) Here


  • Sunday Lesson #13: The Letter “M”

By Dr. Erika M. Karohs

To most handwriting analyst the three-pronged letters “M” or “m” are only significant as indicators for self-consciousness. If the third “hump” is the highest, this reveals self-consciousness or the fear of ridicule.

Well informed analysts, on the other hand, know that much more information is to be gleaned from these letters and, most importantly, that all three prongs or “humps” are equally informative.

Max Pulver, a renowned Swiss graphologist, identifies the first prong with the I, (the writer himself); the second prong with the you (family members, close friends) and the third point with it (other people in the writer’s environment).

Letter height in M even

People who are satisfied with their position write both strokes equally high. In an otherwise harmonious writing, this means inner balance and contentment. These writers do not try to appear what they are not. Usually, they also write the capitals H, K, N, and R of even height, and the proportion of middle zone height to upper zone height is harmonious.


Letter height in M increasing

With the third prong the highest of the three, the writer feels less important than his family or people in his environment. Pulver speaks very fittingly of the “frog perspective.”

The writer is ill at ease in the presence of others or in new and unfamiliar situations. Meeting strangers is difficult for him. Unfamiliar surroundings and people put him off. In any public appearance, he feels strained and ill at ease. Supervision makes them nervous. He may want to do the best job of which he is capable, but he cannot do it easily with someone looking over his shoulder.

One source of his nervousness is focusing too much on what people think of him. He feels that others’ criticism is always about him and he worries about that. He becomes aware of even the smallest of his own actions and such awareness then impairs his ability to perform effectively.

With the second and third prong higher than the first, With the third prong higher and the first and second prong of even height, Letter height in M decreasing, Letter “M” starting with very high downstroke, With the first and second prong even and the third prong shorter, With the second prong higher than the first and the third, Letter M with the second stroke shortest and sinking below the baseline, Letters “m” and “n” with sharply pointed downstrokes, … to be continued


Read for the complete Article (13) Here


  • Sunday Lesson #14: Soldered (sautered) writing

By Dr. Erika M. Karohs

Sautered or soldered writing is an important graphological phenomenon about which relatively little is known. This is not due to the fact that it occurs only seldom, but rather that it is fairly difficult to recognize without magnification.

Graphic indicator

“The most predominant characteristic of soldered writing,” writes Lutz Wagner (a renowned German graphologist) “is that there are many letters or parts of letters which are neither connected or disconnected.”Usually, at first impression, the writing appears connected, but at close examination there are many disconnections. Curiously, they do not result in free spaces. According to Wagner, the newly started stroke either touches the previous one or runs parallel to it. He calls it soldering because it is similar to two wires being soldered together.


Graphological meaning

Sautered strokes belong in the general category of cover strokes, indicating the intent to cover up, to conceal. Within this group, however, they are in a special category by themselves.

The meaning of soldered strokes

Sautered strokes signal much unnaturalness on the part of the writer who has to exert a high degree of maneuverability and adroitness to merge the new stroke beginnings exactly with the broken-off strokes. The purpose is to close all openings through which other people could get a glimpse at the psychological make-up of the writer.

In behavior, sautered strokes indicate lack of spontaneity because the writer is constantly concerned about the impression he makes on others. Outwardly, the writer wants to remain impenetrable and “unreadable.” His basic attitude is one of fear that someone will “see through him” and uncover the inner conflicts he refuses to admit to himself. Consequently, he carefully covers all “openings” to prevent others to peek into his soul, his private life of his personal affairs.
These individuals are basically very anxious and uneasy people. They are unable to endure periods of inactivity because such intervals could make them suspect of wasting time with “forbidden” thoughts. Because they are afraid to reveal their inner agitation, they strain to be extra composed and calm on the outside. They make a continuous effort to appear so perfect that no room for criticism exists and no one can fault them for anything. To hide a vaguely sensed feelings of inner uncertainty, they make a frantic attempt to feign composure and to keep up an appearance of confidence.

In combination with vertical slant, Soldered-on loops in the upper zone, to be continued

Read for the complete Article (14) Here


  • Sunday Lesson #15: 2 Most Frequent Questions

A Message from Dr. Erika Margarete Karohs

Two of the most frequent questions we receive are:

(1)   What are the uses of handwriting analysis?

(2)   How is Handwriting analysis going to help me personally?

I would like to answer these questions for all potential and current students based upon my experience as a teacher and practicing, very successful graphologist. 

  1. What are the uses of handwriting analysis?

Handwriting Analysis is used by teachers, by members of law enforcement, by counselors, but most importantly by corporations and businesses to analyze candidates for hiring, for promotions, or for worker compatibility. 

Graphologists work as consultants to such businesses. I can personally avow that this is a most wonderfully satisfying occupation because, using a laptop, one can work from nearly anywhere. Every summer I fly to Germany. I work in the airport lounge, on the plane, and at the hotel, while clients never realize that I am not at my office.

But there are prerequisites. Unless you observe them, your chances of making it in handwriting analysis are very slim: 

(a)   Comprehensive training with a reputable teacher/school is a MUST!

A “10-minutes-a-day” study course does not suffice.  While snooping into the sexual inclinations of the writer may seem interesting, it would train you merely for parlor games. Courses taught by “teachers” lacking substance, experience, sincerity, and who use every con artist trick to make a buck for themselves, are simply a waste of your money.

To work as professional, you must learn the science from a reputable teacher with proven practical experience. Some hypothetical lessons with make-believe cases will not suffice.

(b)   You must be able to write analyses fast and accurately.

Most so-called graphology schools teach students how to identify basic traits and offer a few meager trait descriptions. I don’t know of any school, aside from ISHA, that actually teaches how to combine traits into meaningful analyses. But, unless you can write analyses quickly, accurately, you are not going to make it in the field. 

Day in, day out, my day starts with downloading handwriting samples that come to me via e-mails. Within 72 hours, analyses are returned to the clients. (unless we agree on a longer turn-around time, like when a client requests 2000 Profile analyses – true case!).

To get to this point, you must write as many analyses as you can. Practice, practice, practice. Just completing the diploma test analysis is not enough. It is just like learning every other skill. It’s painfully slow in the beginning; you may get frustrated about the scoring and the measuring and having to look up the meaning of traits. But the more you write, the faster it gets. Before you know, your speed will increase, and you will actually enjoy doing the job.

Right now, you may be asking yourself – but where do I find clients to write all these analyses for? In the beginning, you will have to be enterprising to find one or two companies. That’s all. After that, it’s strictly word-of-mouth. For years now, new clients have come to me only through referrals. I no longer even have a “services” website. I took it down.


  1. How is Handwriting analysis going to help me personally?

With handwriting analysis you will gain a deeper perception of who you are as an individual. You will learn to understand yourself, your strengths, your talents, and you hidden fears.
You will learn to understand others, how they think and feel, what pleases and what offends them. With handwriting analysis you will learn to “know thyself” as well as to get along better with other people, at home, with your friends, or in business.

Kind regards and much success to all of you!

Dr. Erika Margarete Karohs

“Practicing graphologist”

Read for the complete Article (15) Here


  • Sunday Lesson #16: Emphasis

Initial emphasis

Initial emphasis means exaggeration of the first stroke, letter or word either in size, height, pressure, or form.


Indicators of initial emphasis:

  1. Careful execution of all details of the letter.
  2. Embellishment of initial letters, words, or strokes.
  3. Exaggeratedly high first strokes in capital letters. An exaggeratedly high first stroke in capitals is one of the indicators of an authoritarian personality.
  4. Exaggeratedly high capital letters.

Since handwriting is being experienced as “standing,” the tendency to enlarge initial letters “expresses the writer’s preference for dominating forms. This, in turn, says Klages, “is rooted in his self-feelings.

Exaggeratedly high initial letters manifest a desire for superiority, a need for greatness.

Preyer explains that disproportionate initial height exposes immoderate requests on the part of the writer. Whether in a conversation or a speech he will make excessive demands on others’ time and will always put his own concerns first.
Klages theorizes that capitals increasing in height show ambition. This, of course, is in keeping with the interpretation of “looking up,” since to the ambitious person the desired goal seems “higher upon “lofty,” or “elevated.”

Extreme narrowness in very tall capitals reveals exaggerated sensitiveness because of unsatisfied needs for recognition.

Mendel speaks of “social timidity, professional jealousy, ambition without adequate imagination, sobriety, coolness” and “rigor.” (Personality in Handwriting, New York 1975, p. 160)

  1. Exaggeratedly wide capitals

To compensate for strong insecurities, these writers may put up a front of arrogance. In relationships, the can be rude and impertinent. Extremely vulnerable to criticism, they may try keep themselves from losing face by resorting to subterfuge or misrepresentation.

… to be continued


Read for the complete Article (16) Here




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